Influenzanet is a system to monitor the activity of influenza-like-illness (ILI) with the aid of volunteers via the internet

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Developing the framework for an epidemic forecast infrastructure.

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Participating countries and volunteers:

Participating countries and volunteers:

The Netherlands 11953
Belgium 3946
Portugal 1747
Italy 4292
Great Britain 4151
Sweden 6700
Austria 502
Switzerland 139
France 6236
Spain 996
Ireland 295
Denmark 1309
InfluenzaNet is a system to monitor the activity of influenza-like-illness (ILI) with the aid of volunteers via the internet. It has been operational in The Netherlands and Belgium (since 2003), Portugal (since 2005) and Italy (since 2008), and the current objective is to implement InfluenzaNet in more European countries.

In contrast with the traditional system of sentinel networks of mainly primary care physicians coordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS), InfluenzaNet obtains its data directly from the population. This creates a fast and flexible monitoring system whose uniformity allows for direct comparison of ILI rates between countries.

Any resident of a country where InfluenzaNet is implemented can participate by completing an online application form, which contains various medical, geographic and behavioural questions. Participants are reminded weekly to report any symptoms they have experienced since their last visit. The incidence of ILI is determined on the basis of a uniform case definition.

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Scientific publications

Using Participatory Web-based Surveillance Data to Improve Seasonal Influenza Forecasting in Italy  Daniela Perrotta, Michele Tizzoni, Daniela Paolotti, Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web (WWW) 2017

Disease severity determines health-seeking behaviour amongst individuals with influenza-like illness in an internet-based cohort Maria Peppa, W. John Edmunds, Sebastian Funk, BMC Infectious Diseases 17:238 2017 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2337-5

Participatory Online Surveillance as a Supplementary Tool to Sentinel Doctors for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Italy Daniela Perrotta, Caterina Rizzo, Antonino Bella, Daniela Paolotti,  PLoS ONE 12(1): e0169801 2017

Participatory Syndromic Surveillance of Influenza in Europe
Caroline Guerrisi, Clément Turbelin, Thierry Blanchon, Thomas Hanslik, Isabelle Bonmarin, Daniel Levy-Bruhl, Daniela Perrotta, Daniela Paolotti, Ronald Smallenburg, Carl Koppeschaar, Ana O. Franco, Ricardo Mexia, W. John Edmunds, Bersabeh Sile, Richard Pebody, Edward van Straten, Sandro Meloni, Yamir Moreno, Jim Duggan, Charlotte Kjelsø and Vittoria Colizza.
J Infect Dis. (2016) 214 (suppl 4): S386-S392. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw280

Influmeter – an online tool for self-reporting of influenza-like illness in Denmark
C Kjelsø, M Galle, H Bang, S Ethelberg, TG Krause
Infectious Diseases, 2015

Ten-year performance of Influenzanet: ILI time series, risks, and vaccine effects in the Grote Griepmeting, Gripenet, and Influweb cohorts
Sander P. van Noort, Cláudia T. Codeço, Carl E. Koppeschaar, Marc van Ranst, Daniela Paolotti, M. Gabriela M. Gomes
Epidemics, 2015

Enhancing syndromic surveillance with an on-line respondent-driven method
Mart L. Steijn, Jim E. van Steenbergen, Vincent Buskens, Peter. G.M. Van der Heijden, Carl E. Koppeschaar, Linus Bengtsson, Anna E. Thorson, Mirjam E.E. Kretschmar
American Journal of Public Health, August 2015

Association between Recruitment Methods and Attrition in Internet-Based Studies
Paolo Bajardi, Daniela Paolotti, Alessandro Vespignani, Ken Eames, Sebastian Funk, John Edmunds, Clement Turbelin, Marion Debin, Vittoria Colizza, Ronald Smallenburg, Carl Koppeschaar, Ana O. Franco, Vitor Faustino, AnnaSara Carnahan, Moa Rehn, Franco Merletti, Jeroen Douwes, Ridvan Firestone, Lorenzo Richiardi
PLoS ONE, December 9, 2014

The representativeness of a European multi-center network for influenza-like-illness participatory surveillance
P. Cantarelli, M. Debin, C. Turbelin, C. Poletto, T. Blanchon, A. Falchi, T. Hanslik, I. Bonmarin, D. Levy-Bruhl, A. Micheletti, D. Paolotti, A. Vespignani, J. Edmunds, K. Eames, R. Smallenburg, C. Koppeschaar, A. O Franco, V. Faustino, A. Carnahan, M. Rehn, V. Colizza
BMC Public Health 14 (2014) p.984

Determinants of Follow-Up Participation in the Internet-Based European Influenza Surveillance Platform Influenzanet
P. Bajardi, A. Vespignani, S. Funk, K. Eames, J. Edmunds, C. Turbelin, M. Debin, V. Colizza, R. Smallenburg, C. Koppeschaar, A. Franco, V. Faustino, A. Carnahan, M. Rehn, D. Paolotti
Journal of Medical Internet Research 16, 3 (2014)

Effectiveness of 2012-2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like-illness in general population: estimation in a French web-based cohort
M. Debin, V. Colizza, T. Blanchon, T. Hanslik, C. Turbelin, A. Falchi
Human Vaccine & Immunotherapeutics 10,3 (2014)

Incidence and risk factors for influenza-like-illness in the UK: online surveillance using Flusurvey
Alma J Adler, Ken TD Eames, Sebastian Funk and W John Edmunds
BMC Infectious Diseases 2014, 14:232 

Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory surveillance experience
D. Paolotti, A. Carnahan, V. Colizza, K. Eames, J. Edmunds, G. Gomes, C. Koppeschaar, M. Rehn, R. Smallenburg, C. Turbelin, S.P. Van Noort, A. Vespignani
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, January 2014

Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention.
M.M.A. de Lange, A. Meijer, I.H.M. Friesema, G.A. Donker, C.E. Koppeschaar, M. Hooiveld, N. Ruigrok, W. van der Hoek
BMC Public Health, 24 September 2013

Evaluating the feasibility and participants’ representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France
M. Debin. C. Turbelin, T. Blanchon, I. Bonmarin, A. Falchi, T. Hanslik, D. Levy-Bruhl, C. Poletto, V. Colizza
PLoS ONE, September 11, 2013

Eight Years of the Great Influenza Survey to Monitor Influenza-Like Illness in Flanders
Y. Vandendijck, C. Faes, N. Hens
PLoS ONE, May 17 2013

Using the internet to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness
W.J. Edmunds, S. Funk
Expert Review of Vaccines, September 2012

The role of weather on the relation between influenza and influenza-like illness
S.P. van Noort, R. Águas, S. Ballesteros, M.G.M. Gomes
Journal of Theoretical Biology, April 2012

Measured dynamic social contact patterns explain the spread of H1N1v influenza.
K.T. Eames, N. Tilston, E. Brooks-Pollock, W.J. Edmunds
PLoS Computational Biology, 8 March 2012

Rapid assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness: analysis of an internet-based cohort.
K.T. Eames, E. Brooks-Pollock, D. Paolotti, M. Perosa, C. Gioannini, W.J. Edmunds
Epidemiology & Infection, 12 September 2011

Using an online survey of healthcare-seeking behaviour to estimate the magnitude and severity of the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic in England.
E. Brooks-Pollock, N. Tilston, W.J. Edmunds, K.T. Eames
BMC Infectious Diseases, 16 March 2011.

Internet-based monitoring system for influenza-like illness: H1N1 surveillance in Italy.
D. Paolotti, C. Gioannini, V. Colizza, A. Vespignani
Proceedings of the 3rd International ICST Conference on Electronic Healthcare for the 21st century, Casablanca 13-15 December 2010.

Internet-based surveillance of Influenza-like-illness in the UK during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.
N.L. Tilston, K.T. Eames, D. Paolotti, T. Ealden, W.J. Edmunds
BMC Public Health, 27 October 2010.

Vaccination against pandemic influenza A/H1N1v in England: a real-time economic evaluation.
M. Baguelin, A.J. van Hoek, M. Jit, S. Flasche, P.J. White, W.J. Edmunds
Vaccine 2010, Volume 28, Pages 2370-2384.

Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness in the general population: Experience of five influenza seasons in the Netherlands.
I.H.M. Friesema, C.E. Koppeschaar, G.A. Donker, F. Dijkstra, S.P. van Noort, R. Smallenburg, W. van der Hoek, M.A.B. van der Sande
Vaccine 2009, Volume 27, Issue 45, 23 October 2009, Pages 6353-6357.

Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology.
K.G. Smolderen, A.J. Vingerhoets, M.A. Croon, J. Denollet
BMC Public Health, 23 November 2007

Gripenet: an internet-based system to monitor influenza-like illness uniformly across Europe.
S.P. van Noort, M. Muehlen, H. Rebelo de Andrade, C.E. Koppeschaar, J.M. Lima Lourenco, M.G. Gomes
Euro Surveillance, 1 Juli 2007.

Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the general population of the Netherlands during the 2003-2004 influenza season.
R.L. Marquet, A.I. Bartelds, S.P. van Noort, C.E. Koppeschaar, J. Paget, F.G. Schellevis, J. van der Zee
BMC Public Health, 4 October 2006.


Virus cultivation

Influenzanet is part of the Epiwork WP5. This Work Package intends to overcome the limitation of the state of the art surveillance systems for Influenza by proposing an innovative ICT approach based on Web2.0 tools. (Epiwork WP5)